Nubia- 3100 B.C.E. to 350 C.E.

´╗┐Video makes it clear that Nubia was not Egypt.

Nubia Drinking Cup

Nubian Storage Jar

Map of Kush
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map of Kush, the Napata-centered era occurred from 750-650 b.c.e, the Meroe- centered era occurred from 300 b.c.e. to 350 c.e.
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Kush Temple
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Map of Nubia
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Nubian Appearance and Physical Features

Nubian Army:
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Compare the to statues below. There are differences between the physical features of the Nubian when compared to the Egyptians. Note the differences between the noses, lips, and eyes. This shows that there was diversity all along the Nile River.
Nubian Statue:
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Egyptian Statue:
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  • in Kush- craftsmen were skilled in metalworking (weaponds or jewlery) and pottery
Social and
  • culture drew on influences from sub-saharan africa
  • in 5th millennium v.c.e. people in northern nubia moved away from seminomadic hunting and gathering to settled life based on grain agriculture and cattle herding
  • majority of people lived in agricultural villages next to the river
  • Egyptian culture was imposed on the native people: children from elite familes were brought to Egyptian royal court to guarantee the good behavior of their relatives in Nubia
    • Egyptian language, culture, religion
  • 2300 b.c.e. egyptian officials made negotiations with nubian chiefs to secure protection
    • from 2040-1640 b.c.e. Egypt wanted to control the gold mines east of the nile and cut out the Nubian middlemen (Nubians drove up the cost)
    • Egypt put up forts to protect against Nubians
  • Farther South in Dongola Reach there was Kush- indigenous kingdom with own institutions and cultural traditions beginning in the second millennium b.c.e.
    • Kush- one of the earliest urbanized centers in tropical africa
      • fortification walls and monumental structures
  • 1532-1070 b.c.e. Egyptians pushed further into Nubia.... destroyed Kush.
    • the "overseer of southern lands (Egyptians)" ruled Nubia from Napata
      • exploited Nubian mines
  • 8th Century b.c.e. a new native kingdom emerged
    • Napata= primary center
    • from 712 to 660 b.c.e. Nubian kings ruled Egypt, the kings conducted themselves like Egyptian rulers, but had Nubian names with the physical appearance of sub-saharan africans
  • in Kush- servants and wives were sacrificed for burial with the kings with rich objects.... implies a belief in an afterlife
  • built Egyptian model towns with stone temples to Egyptian gods - Amon.
Ideas and
  • Nile River: boats operating between the cataracts and caravans through the river (made travel and trade possible)
  • technology influenced by Egyptian practices
  • had writing that we can not read
trade and
  • mutually beneficial interactions occurred between Egypt and Nubia
  • traded ivory and ebony wood in 3000 b.c.e. through Nubia to Egyptian craftsmen
  • 1,000 mile stretch of the Nile Valley between Aswan and Khartoum
  • southern part of modern Egypt and northern part of Sudan
  • connects sub-Saharan Africa with North Africa
  • along side the Nile River
  • Natural resources: gold, copper, semiprecious stones