Egypt- "Gift of the Nile"S- live in rural villages and engage in agriculture, no formal class structure, peasants and villagers maintain and extend irrigation, women clearly subordinate to men but could still own property, hunters-wild animals/birds, fishermen-fish

P- local kinship, "Ruler of the Two Lands," Menes, country unified, pharaoh (New Kingdom), ma'at (Old Kingdom), king was a god sent to earth, elaborate ceremonies after death for king, pyramids, appointed officials, tension between monarchy and bureaucracy, isolationist.


R- pyramids and religious services to ensure prosperity, sun god (Ra), much of country's wealth was devoted to religious activities, belief in afterlife, mummification, belief in many gods which were diverse in origin/nature

I- Nile River used for travel/communication, Nile supported agriculture, domesticated animal and plant species.

T- papyrus-sails/rope/paper, building stones quarried, clay for bricks and pottery, copper/turquoise, hieroglyphics-recordkeeping, math for building pyramids, astronomy, engineering

E-bureaucrats-land,products, people, taxes. government monopoly over economy and trade, abroad focused on maintaining valuable resources, trade brought cedar wood, exports-grain, papyrus, gold


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