Recent Changes

Sunday, January 20

  1. 3:23 pm

Thursday, January 17

  1. page Midterm Exam Reviw edited ... Below you will find review sheet that supplements Podium. Here I have posted materials by Coll…
    ...
    Below you will find review sheet that supplements Podium. Here I have posted materials by College Board's Key Concepts, suggestions on how to deal with the essays and notes about the multiple choice. I have added materials that seemed to meet people's needs.
    MID-TERM EXAM FORMAT:
    ...
    complete them. Here isWe went through in class a sample of what they look like. {SAMPLE AP TEST QUESTIONS FROM 2011 – 2012 VERSION OF TEST.doc} them..
    3 Essays. You are given about 10 minutes prep time, to use for the DBQ. Then you have about 40 minutes for each essay. Some teachers advise taking 50 minutes for the DBQ, because the information is right there, and then using 35 minutes for the other two essays. Keep in mind that the exam is designed to test your knowledge of three or more time periods. AND that the authors are careful to spread the content to cover as many geographical areas as possible. This means that you will be asked to compare regions or empires from one are or another. (They will never ask you to compare Greece and Rome.)
    This is a general tip sheet about essay writing that I found helpful. There is a simple table for each of the essay types. He is giving formulas that we have talked about earlier. {Must Do Essay Checklist.pdf}
    (view changes)
    4:08 pm

Monday, November 26

  1. page Midterm Exam Reviw edited ... This is how you draw Europe into the analysis -- crop rotation....didn't need it in Kiev... {…
    ...
    This is how you draw Europe into the analysis -- crop rotation....didn't need it in Kiev...
    {islamic-tp.pdf} This packet provides a great summary of all things Early Islamic.
    Unit Five:Four: Global Interactions
    How Ms. Gardiner would study: She would work backwards through the assignments and review the material that we just covered about the empires in Eurasia. She would spend the bulk of her time for this section brushing up the emergence and development of the Atlantic System (slavery, rise of Absolutism and mercantilism in Europe, Colombian Exchange, slavery, slavery's affects on Africa, colonialism, .....)
    (view changes)
    11:48 am

Thursday, August 23

  1. page Mesopotamia edited ... "If a man wishes to divorce his first wife who has not borne him sons, he shall give her …
    ...
    "If a man wishes to divorce his first wife who has not borne him sons, he shall give her the amount of her purchase money and the dowry which she brought from her father's house, and let her go." (#138)
    "If a woman quarrel with her husband, and says: "You are not congenial to me," the reasons for her prejudice must be presented. If she is guiltless, and there is no fault on her part, but he leaves and neglects her, then no guilt attaches to this woman, she shall take her dowry and go back to her father's house." (#142)
    AND... IF YOU MADE IT THIS FAR...
    Sources:
    Bulliet, Richard, et al. Earth and Its People, AP Edition, (Boston: Wadsworth, 2011) p. 5
    ...
    Tignor, Robert, Map of Trade in Mediteranian at 3000 BCE, WTWA, http://www.wwnorton.com/college/history/worlds2/contents/imaps/ch02/02_02/map.htm
    Tignor, Robert. Map of Spread of Cities in Mesopotamia, WTWA,http://www.wwnorton.com/college/history/worlds2/contents/imaps/ch02/02_03/map.htm
    They Might Be Giants, The Mesopotamians on YouTube.
    (view changes)
    1:39 pm
  2. page Mesopotamia edited ... 2. Show specific examples which are memorable and understandable. This means providing illustr…
    ...
    2. Show specific examples which are memorable and understandable. This means providing illustrations of vocabulary terms that one might use to differentiate one area from another.
    Step 1: Use Bulliet, Tignor or Sterns (AP textbooks for your first pass at the research. They were written with the criteria in mind.)
    ...
    2: Use HilbrandHeilbrunn Timeline of
    Step 3: Find one primary source at the Ancient History Sourcebook and use it to illustrate one or two features of civilization. (If possible.)
    3. Incorporate images, maps and videos that successfully summarize the material. In other words, there needs to be pictures with captions.
    ...
    1: ArtStor, met.orghttp://www.met.org are the
    Step 2: Searches within PBS video, the Legacy series, Civilizations and Bridging World History and DocuWatch will be the fastest ways to find reliable videos. The Indus Civilization at http://www.harappa.com/har/har0.html and http://youtu.be/2DHhPvbaV68 The Story of India as sources. http://videos.howstuffworks.com/geography/olmec-videos-playlist.htm#video-28709 are short videos about the Olmec. http://www.ted.com/talks/view/lang///id/1180 A lecture of about the Indus River civilization with comparisons.
    Step 3: In Ms. Gardiner's shared resources on Google Drive are the JPG files of the textbook's maps.
    4. Provide a list of sources. This bibliography should NOT just be a list of URLs. Look below if you need a template.
    Grading:
    ...
    At the local level most people barter for what they need
    Precious metals and measures of grain are standardized to operate as currency
    Gvt.Govt. controls raw
    Labor supply:
    Almost everyone is working in agricultural labor
    ...
    Human interaction with the environment is defined in this case by the ways in which the Mesopotamians tamed their environment.
    As mentioned above, lots of labor keeping up lots of canals, plowing fields and creating agricultural surplus. Alluvian plains are fertile soil made by silt. The soil is great, but the region is too hot, too dry and floods unpredictably. Thus, you need a civilization if you are going to cultivate it. And, cultivating it gives you the resources needed for a bigger civilization!
    Bulliet defines technology as "the specialized knowledge that allows for the transformation of the natural environment and human society." (Bulliet, p. 21)
    In Mesopotamia technologies enable control of the environment. They include: boats, barges, domestication of donkeys and , creation of bronze tools, pottery, bricks, wheeled carts, engineering, military training, chariots, base-60 number system, and religious texts. (This is his list from p. 23 and 24.)
    Cuneiform - a system of writing - allowed people to keep records! Making wedge-shaped impressions allowed them to account for transactions.

    Migration is facilitated by the rivers. As populations increased they spread out, or they took over their neighbors.
    Culture
    Religion:
    Sumerian gods were anthropomorphic representations of forces of nature. They were moody. Their emotional state explained what was happening in nature. Thus, they needed to be appeased.
    Cities built temples and staffed them with priests. The temples were complexes that included shrines to a main god and sub-gods, and a host of buildings for the staff. The ziggurat was the most notable feature. (See the slideshow for examples). Its actual purpose is debated. Bulliet notes that the temples operated like the residence of the god, and that priests treated the image as they would a person.
    The priesthood was a hierarchical profession passed through the generations of men.
    {LESSING_ART_10311440721.jpg}

    Social:
    Creation of social stratification is one of the hallmarks of civilization. There are generally three classes: elites, free and slaves. Bulliet makes the point that slavery was less critical to the economy. Most people lived in mud brick buildings, worked hard and had little that remained. Scribes left records of themselves and of male society. Thus, our understanding of Mesopotamia is biased toward the writers' interpretations of what life was like.
    ...
    "If a man wishes to divorce his first wife who has not borne him sons, he shall give her the amount of her purchase money and the dowry which she brought from her father's house, and let her go." (#138)
    "If a woman quarrel with her husband, and says: "You are not congenial to me," the reasons for her prejudice must be presented. If she is guiltless, and there is no fault on her part, but he leaves and neglects her, then no guilt attaches to this woman, she shall take her dowry and go back to her father's house." (#142)
    Religion:
    Sumerian gods were anthropomorphic representations of forces of nature. They were moody. Their emotional state explained what was happening in nature. Thus, they needed to be appeased.
    Cities built temples and staffed them with priests. The temples were complexes that included shrines to a main god and sub-gods, and a host of buildings for the staff. The ziggurat was the most notable feature. (See the slideshow for examples). Its actual purpose is debated. Bulliet notes that the temples operated like the residence of the god, and that priests treated the image as they would a person.
    The priesthood was a hierarchical profession passed through the generations of men.
    {LESSING_ART_10311440721.jpg}
    S
    Social: Emerging social stratification comes with successive generations of building. As the cities become larger and more sophisticated, there seems to be greater social stratification. Legal privilege and political privilege are not equally distributed. Women's status has declined.
    Hammurabi's Code talks about marital law that illustrates a power differential between men and women. Men can simply dismiss their wives by returning their property to them. Marriage laws punish adulterers, rapists but not young girls living in their father's houses. Marriage and monastic life and living with your parents seem to be the three choices for women.
    Hammurabi's Code protects the interests of slave holders.
    The monetary damages described in Hammurabi's code suggest commoners are worth more than slaves and less than elites. Code defines three classes of people: free landowners, dependent farmers and slaves. You are punished based on your class.
    *
    P
    Political: Palaces as complexes developed about 1000 years after temples. This suggests that the separation of political and religious power took place
    over time. Kings connect themselves to the divine.
    Summerians - villages evolve into cities, ultimately they are intermingled with the semites by 2000 BCE. KEY POINT: it is about the LANGUAGE.
    Babylonia rises at the end of the period.
    Priest group and administrative group and military protection emerge as elites.
    Bureaucracy, "obsessive" record keeping - using cuneiform to keep grain records and track tax revenue according to textbook
    Hammurabi's Code and the Epic of Gilgamesh both focus upon the consolidated political power of a prince/king.
    Legal systems are a feature of civilization.
    R
    Religion: The gods are everywhere and a bit moody. There isn't a clear distinction between the gods and people. Nor is there a clear distinction between where the gods live and where humans live. The gods were anthropomorphic (had bodies and senses)
    Epic of Gilgamesh, in the flood story, noise that is made by humans disturbs the peace of the gods and their response is to wipe out humans.
    In the Epic of Gilgamesh gives multiple examples of discussion among gods about what is moral and which one has which power.
    Zoroastrianism - two opposing forces (light and dark, good and evil) -- WHY is this here????
    I
    Cuneiform, messenger system that moves ideas around.
    Building big temple structures (ziggurats)
    Complex societies have to have a way to communicate over distance - literacy is limited to scribes.
    Math, science, and heavenly bodies
    T
    Technology: compound bow, chariots, cuneiform, copper, barley cultivation, beer,
    Hammurabi's Code technologies: irrigation, silver mina (coins), housing, taverns
    Gilgamesh talks about shipbuilding
    E
    Economic: Alluvian plains depositing into the Persian Gulf. The environment isn't ideal for agriculture. While you have great soil, there isn't enough water at the right times of the year without manipulation of the environment. Management of the fields through an elaborate set of irrigation damns and channels improves agricultural yields.
    Barley is the staple, millet, sesame, wheat
    Hammurabi's Code makes it illegal to ignore upkeep of irrigation systems.
    Hammurabi's Code stresses protecting grain. (Which tells us that the agricultural system was fragile.)
    Hammurabi's Code talks about tavern operations. -
    Epic of Gilgamesh describes items that are taken into the boat: grain, domesticated animals, oil
    Epic of Gilgamesh describes paying labor in wine
    "I loaded into her all that I had of gold and of living things, my family, my kin, the beast of the field both wild and tame, and all the craftsmen." this describes what is valuable in the society. It is what he takes onto the boat.
    A
    See Below.

    Sources:
    Bulliet, Richard, et al. Earth and Its People, AP Edition, (Boston: Wadsworth, 2011) p. 5
    (view changes)
    1:30 pm
  3. page Mesopotamia edited ... Mesopotamia - Land Between Two Rivers Human interaction with the environment is defined in th…
    ...
    Mesopotamia - Land Between Two Rivers
    Human interaction with the environment is defined in this case by the ways in which the Mesopotamians tamed their environment.
    ...
    plains are fertile soil made by silt. The soil is great, but the key!region is too hot, too dry and floods unpredictably. Thus, you need a civilization if you are going to cultivate it. And, cultivating it gives you the resources needed for a bigger civilization!
    Migration is facilitated by the rivers. As populations increased they spread out, or they took over their neighbors.
    Social:
    ...
    "If a man wishes to divorce his first wife who has not borne him sons, he shall give her the amount of her purchase money and the dowry which she brought from her father's house, and let her go." (#138)
    "If a woman quarrel with her husband, and says: "You are not congenial to me," the reasons for her prejudice must be presented. If she is guiltless, and there is no fault on her part, but he leaves and neglects her, then no guilt attaches to this woman, she shall take her dowry and go back to her father's house." (#142)
    Religion:
    Sumerian gods were anthropomorphic representations of forces of nature. They were moody. Their emotional state explained what was happening in nature. Thus, they needed to be appeased.
    Cities built temples and staffed them with priests. The temples were complexes that included shrines to a main god and sub-gods, and a host of buildings for the staff. The ziggurat was the most notable feature. (See the slideshow for examples). Its actual purpose is debated. Bulliet notes that the temples operated like the residence of the god, and that priests treated the image as they would a person.
    The priesthood was a hierarchical profession passed through the generations of men.
    {LESSING_ART_10311440721.jpg}

    S
    Social: Emerging social stratification comes with successive generations of building. As the cities become larger and more sophisticated, there seems to be greater social stratification. Legal privilege and political privilege are not equally distributed. Women's status has declined.
    ...
    A
    See Below.
    Here are some pictures: All from the Metropolitan Museum of Art's Collection:
    {hb_62.70.2.jpg}
    Here are Pictures from ArtStor:
    http://library.artstor.org/library/secure/ViewImages?id=%2FDFMaiMuOztdLS04ejp5SXkjXw%3D%3D&userId=gDFBfTgr&zoomparams=
    From Artstor
    http://library.artstor.org/library/secure/ViewImages?id=%2FDFMaiMuOztdLS0wdD59Rnsi&userId=gjZEfDg%3D&zoomparams=
    http://library.artstor.org/library/secure/ViewImages?id=%2FDFMaiMuOztdLS0wdD5%2FTXcp&userId=gjZEfDg%3D&zoomparams=

    Sources:
    Ancient
    Code of Hammurabi Excerpts, Ancient Tablets, Ancient Graves:
    Accessing Women's Lives in Mesopotamia, Women in World History Curriculum, http://womeninworldhistory.com

    Bulliet, Richard, et al. Earth and Its People, AP Edition, (Boston: Wadsworth, 2011) p. 5
    College Board, AP World: Course and Examination Description, 2011. published at: www.collegeboard.com/apcentral
    Code of Hammurabi Excerpts, Ancient Tablets, Ancient Graves: Accessing Women's Lives in Mesopotamia, Women in World History Curriculum, http://womeninworldhistory.com
    Historyteachers, Civilization, (YouTube:Historyteachers Channel, 2011. http://youtu.be/c1g60SSGmeY
    Tignor, Robert. Map of World in 3000 BCE,Worlds Together Worlds Apart, 2nd Edition (New York: Norton, 2009) http://www.wwnorton.com/college/history/worlds2/contents/imaps/ch2.asp
    (view changes)
    1:13 pm
  4. page Mesopotamia edited ... Epic of Gilgamesh describes paying labor in wine {ch02map02.jpg} Mesopotamia - Land Betwee…
    ...
    Epic of Gilgamesh describes paying labor in wine
    {ch02map02.jpg}
    Mesopotamia - Land Between Two Rivers
    Human interaction with the environment is defined in this case by the ways in which the Mesopotamians tamed their environment.
    As mentioned above, lots of labor keeping up lots of canals, plowing fields and creating agricultural surplus. Alluvian plains are the key!
    Migration is facilitated by the rivers. As populations increased they spread out, or they took over their neighbors.

    Social:
    SocialCreation of social stratification is one of the hallmarks of civilization. There are generally three classes: elites, free and slaves. Bulliet makes the point that slavery was less critical to the economy. Most people lived in mud brick buildings, worked hard and had little that remained. Scribes left records of themselves and of male society. Thus, our understanding of Mesopotamia is biased toward the writers' interpretations of what life was like.
    Hammurabi's Code protects the interests of slave holders.
    The monetary damages described in Hammurabi's Code suggest commoners are worth more than slaves and less than elites. Code defines three classes of people: free landowners, dependent farmers and slaves. You are punished based on your class.
    Below are some interesting examples of how women are presented in those texts. What kind of restrictions are they placing on women?

    From Hammurabi's Code (Examples about Women):
    "If a married lady who is dwelling in a man's house sets her face to go out of doors and persists in behaving herself foolishly wasting her house and belittling her husband, they shall convict her and, if her husband then states that he will divorce her, he may divorce her; nothing shall be given to her as her divorce-money on her journey." (Law #141.)
    (view changes)
    12:47 pm
  5. page Mesopotamia edited ... * mesopotamia This link takes you to an image viewer that shows you 15 political, economic…
    ...
    *
    mesopotamia
    This link takes you to an image viewer that shows you 15 political, economic and religious examples from Mesopotamian, including: cuneiform administrative records, models of ziggurats, city plans, royal seals, statues of kings and gods, luxury goods and artifacts from royal tombs. (To make a collection like this: Go to Artstor. If you are on campus, you can create an account and create image collections that can be shared via URL(or downloaded to powerpoint). This is a super handy way to embed images and avoid having to cite them, because the citation is automatically attached to each image.)
    Economics of Mesopotamia:
    Settled Agriculture:
    (view changes)
    12:20 pm

More