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INTRODUCTION:

In the history of hatred-based movements, no tool has been more utilized for the advancement of the movements than the youth as a powerful group. This is particularly observable in the rise of Nazism in Germany under Hitler and the resulting contemporary Neo-Nazi movements. For adults leading the movements, the minds of children and teens are voids that can be filled with zealous political and moral opinions via propaganda and promises of a meaningful existence.

HITLER'S YOUTH GROUPS:
Hitler held firm beliefs regarding the concept of a good German child. He believed they should possess strength, toughness, cunning, and, needless to say, anti-semitism. He knew that the future of Germany and his ideals would have to live on through the younger generations, and therefore established several youth groups intended to spread Nazi fundamentals. Before he became the leader of the Third Reich, Hitler initiated the formation of a Nazi Youth League that suffered from low membership and ended in failure due to Hitler being sentenced to prison. Upon Hitler's release from prison, however, the Youth League experienced a resurgence under the direction of Gustav Lenk and gradually attracted more and more young people with the aid of the Nazi party newspaper. In the ten years between 1923 and 1933, Hitler-Jugend (Hitler Youth) grew in membership from slightly over a thousand to 2,300,000. The organization, which was organized and operated in military fashion, preyed on the psychological weaknesses of children and ingrained its members with a fierce loyalty to Nazi bigotry.

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The Nazis capitalized on the natural enthusiasm of young people, their craving for action and desire for peer approval, hoping, ultimately, each young person would come to regard his or her Hitler Youth or BDM unit as a home away from home,in some case as an alternative to their real home."(Lisciotto)


In 1939, a law was passed that mandated that all children were to be enrolled in Hitler-Jugend, otherwise they would be taken from their homes and put in state-run orphanages. With 7,300,000 members in 1939, Hitler Youth was able to train countless young men in the ways of warfare and prepare them for the impending World War II. In the midst of the German's defeat at the hands of the Allies, the Hitler Youth were the last line of German defenses, which resulted in the deaths of many misguided children. Following the conclusion of the fighting, the organization was disbanded in the Allies' De-Nazification efforts and many of its adult leaders were charged with corrupting young people and put on trial.



YOUNG PEOPLE IN THE NEO-NAZI MOVEMENT
Many of the same concepts that enticed the youth to join Hitler-Jugend have enticed their contemporary counterparts to join Neo-Nazi movements. Commonly associated with Neo-Nazism, Skinhead culture has its origins in Britain during the 1960s and 1970s. A derivation of Mod culture, Skinheads became prime targets for recruiters of Neo-Nazi movements. As they were mostly young people, Skinheads were easy to persuade into anti-immigrant and eventually racist mindsets. While many Skinheads remained adamantly anti-racist, the Racist Skinhead movement spread through Europe and across the Atlantic into the United States, where large numbers of immigrants fueled young, white American's frustration, which eventually led to blatant racism. Numerous gangs and organizations have been founded around Neo-Nazi principles, most notably the National Alliance and the Aryan Brotherhood. Within these hatred-driven syndicates, young people searching for a purpose are corrupted by adults and find a false sense of belonging. With a steady income of young members, the Neo-Nazi gangs continue to spread Nazi philosophy despite the best efforts of anti-hatred organizations.
This is a link to a former Neo-Nazi discussing why he became involved in the movement and the motives behind the organizations.
http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-17510812


SOURCES:
-Skinhead Image.
http://tribes.tribe.net/skins-and-bleachers/photos/d5faa056-4c92-4d5d-a69e-a28cb8c13b09

-Hitler Youth Image.
http://propagander2.tripod.com/index-14.html

-Koch, H. W. The Hitler Youth: Origins and Development 1922-1945. New York: Cooper Square, 2000. Print.

-Lisciotto, Carmelo. "The Hitler Youth Www.HolocaustResearchProject.org." Holocaust Education & Archive Research Team. Web. 06 Apr. 2012. <http://www.holocaustresearchproject.org/holoprelude/hitleryouth.html>.

-Hitler Youth Video
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Fdkg5sPf-tk

-"Stop Hate - Neo-Nazi Skinheads." ADL: Fighting Anti-Semitism, Bigotry and Extremism. Web. 06 Apr. 2012. <http://www.adl.org/hate-patrol/njs/neonazi.asp>.