B8 Latin America

Mexico, Argentina, and Brazil, 1900-1949

Mexican Revolution in 1910: A social revolution broke out in Mexico as different leaders vied for power. Popular leaders at this time included: Emiliano Zapata (leader of peasants), Francisco “Pancho” Villa (collaborated with Zapata for the rights of the landless), and Lazaro Cardenas( distributed land to peasants). It lost momentum in the 1920s.
Emiliano Zapata- Revolutionary and leader of peasants in the Mexican Revolution. He mobilized landless peasants in south-central Mexico in an attempt to seize and divide the lands of the wealthy landowners. Though successful for a time, he was ultimately defeated and assassinated.
Francisco “Pancho” Villa - A popular leader during the Mexican Revolution. An outlaw in his youth, when the revolution started, he formed a cavalry army in the north of Mexico and fought for the rights of the landless in collaboration with Emiliano Zapata. He was assassinated in 1923.
Lazaro Cardenas – President of Mexico (1934-1940). He brought major changes to Mexican life by distributing millions of acres of land to the peasants, bringing representatives of workers and farmers into the inner circles of politics, and nationalizing the oil industry.
Constitution of 1917- promised universal suffrage, one-term presidency, state-run education, end of debt peonage, restrictions on foreign ownership of property, laws for minimum wages and labor protection. (laws had symbolic significance)
The Oligarquia- Argentina’s government represented the interests of this small group of wealth landowners who lived in Buenos Aires.
Hipolito Irigoyen- Argentine politician, president of Argentina form 1916 to 1922 and 1928-1930. The first president elected by universal male suffrage, he began his presidency as a reformer but later became conservative.
Getulio Vargas- Dictator of Brazil from 1930-1945 and 1951-1954. Defeated in the presidential election of 1930, he overthrew the government and created Estado Novo (‘new State”), a dictatorship that emphasized industrialization and helped the urban poor but did little to alleviate the problems of the peasants.
Juan Peron- President of Argentina (1946-1955 and 1973-1974). As a military officer, he championed the rights of labor. Aided by his wife Eva Duarte Peron, he was elected president in 1946. He built up Argentinean industry, became very popular among the urban poor, but harmed the economy.
Eva Duarte Peron- Wife of Juan Peron and champion of the poor in Argentina. She was a gifted speaker and popular political leader who campaigned to improve the life of the urban poor by founding schools and hospitals and providing other social benefits.

Decolonization and State Building ( The quest for economic freedom in Latin America)

The Institutional Revolutionary Party, or the PRI- controlled Mexico until the 1990s and had overseen a period of economic expansion during war years. Took place during an era of economic nationalism and the expropriation of foreign oil interests.
The Cuban Revolution- Cuba’s government was corrupt and subservient to the wishes of American interests. Cubans organized for a national election and Fulgencio Batista illegally seized power in a coup in 1953. Fidel Castro took power in 1959 and began revolutionary changes in the economy. Castro seized and redistributed land, lowered urban rents, raised wages, and got support from the Soviet Union
Guatemala- The United States CIA interfered forcefully in Guatemala, and it’s attempt to do the same in Cub led to the Cuban missile crisis and a socialist economy in Cuba.

Postcolonial crises and Asian economic expansion (revolutions, repression, and democratic reform in Latin America)

Proxy Wars- during the cold war, local or regional wars in which the superpowers armed, trained, and financed the combatants.
The Brazilian Solution- the combination of dictatorship, violent repression, and government promotion of industrialization.
Salvador Allende- Socialist politician elected president of Chile in 1970 and overthrown by the military in 1973. He died during the military attack.
General Augusto Pinochet- He led a military uprising - The United States overthrew Allende in 1973 with the help of inflation, mass consumer protests, declining foreign trade, and a military uprising led by General Augusto Pinochet.
Dirty War- War waged by the Argentine military (1976-1983) against leftist groups. Characterized by the use of illegal imprisonment, torture, and executions by the military.
Sandinistas- Members of a leftist coalition that overthrew the Nicaraguan dictatorship of Anastasia Somoza in 1979 and attempted to install a socialist economy. The United States financed armed opposition by the Contras. The Sandinistas lost national elections in 1990.
Hugo Chavez- elected president of Venezuela in 1998 as a vocal critic of neo-liberalism and American influence.
Neo-liberal reforms - In the 1990s the United States pushed Latin American nations to introduce neo-liberal reforms that opened economies to greater foreign investment.
Neo-Liberalism- The term used in Latin America and other developing regions to describe free-market policies that include reducing tariff protection for local industries; the sale of public- sector industries, like national airlines and public utilities, to private investors or foreign corporations; and the reduction of social welfare policies and public sector employment.

S-class split between wealthy landowners and peasants, poor distribution of wealth, mestizos, peasant debt, Mexican Revolution, oligarquia (Arg) small middle class that wants representation, Irigoyen, postwar chaos in Brazil and Argentina, Vargas neglected peasants, sense of nationalism

P- Diaz "Liberty, Order, Progress", Villa, Constitutionalists, Constitution of 1917, Cardenas reformds, postwar prosperity in Brazil and Argentina, depression, Vargas-->industrialization, land-owning oligarchy (Arg), Cuban MIssile Crisis, end foreign interventions, Castro, U.S. influence

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