Ry's Timeline

  • China's Empress Dowager Cixi - She had encouraged Boxers to rise up and expel all the foreigners from China.
  • Boxer Rebellion - The secret society known as "The Righteous and Harmonious Fists" announces its intention to kill the "foreign devils"plaguing China.
  • Sun Yat-sen - After Cixi, he led the Revolutionary Alliance. Chinese nationalist revolutionary, founder and leader of the Guomindang untill his death. He attempted to create a liberal democratic political movement in China but was thwarted by military leaders. His ideas were a mixture of nationalism, socialism, and Confucian philosophy.
  • Yuan Shikai - He supported Sun Yat-sen. Chinese general and first president of the Chinese Republic.
  • Guomingdang - Nationalist political party founded on democratic principles by Sun Yat-sen in 1912. After 1925, the party was headed by Chiang Kai-shek, who turned it into an authoritarian movement.
  • Chiang Kai-shek - Established a dictatorship and modernized China. Chinese military and political leader. Succeeded Sun Yat-sen as head of the Guomindang in 1925; headed the Chinese government from 1928 to 1949; fought against the Chinese Communists and Japanese invaders. After 1949 he headed the Chinese Nationalist government in Taiwan.
  • Mao Zedong - Leader of the Chinese Communist Party. He led the Communists on the Long March and rebuilt the Communist Party and Red Army during the Japanese occupation of China. After WWII, he led the Communists to victory over the Guomindang. He ordered the Cultural Revolution in 1966.
  • Red Army - Consisting of young Chinese militants who sought to identify enemies of the Communist Party and Mao.
  • Long March - Treking to Shaanxi, the 6000 mile flight of Chinese communists from southeastern to north-western China. The communists, led by Mao Zedong, were pursued by the Chinese army under orders from Chiang Kai-shek. The four thousand survivors of the march formed the nucleus of a revived Communist movement that defeated the Guomindang after WWII.
  • Sino-Japanese War - From 1937 to 1945, Japanese continuously attacked and navy blockaded China, including Beijing, Tianjin, Shanhai.
  • People's Republic of China - Founded by Mao Zedong in 1949.
  • Cultural Revolution - Mass mobilization of Chinese youth into Red Guard units. Campaign in China ordered by Mao Zedong to purge the Communist Party of his opponents.
  • Great Leap Forward - an economic and social campaign of the Communist Party. Using China's vast population to rapidly transform the country from an agrarian economy into a modern communist society through the process of rapid industrialization and collectivization.
  • Jiang Qing - Mao Zedong's wife who helped restricting artistic and intellectual activity with radical allies.
  • Deng Xiaoping - Communist Party leader who forced Chinese economic reforms after the death of Mao Zedong. He permitted foreign investment for the first time since the communists came to power in 1949.
  • Tiananmen Square - Site in Beijing where hundreds of thousands of protesting Chinese students and workers gathered to demand greater political openness in 1989. The demonstration was crushed by Chinese military with great loss of life.